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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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was 579,000 tons, but this was sent to South Wales and South Staffordshire. In 1860 the output had increased to 990,000, in 1870 it was 2,093,000, and in 1882 it reached 3,136,000 tons. With this great development of the ore beds, blast furnaces sprang up both in Cumberland and northwest Lancashire, and in 1860 there, were 169,000 tons of pig-iron smelted. In 1870 this had increased to 678,000 tons, while in 1882 the record was 1,792,000 tons.
The imports of ore on the West Coast at that time averaged about 300,000 tons per year, but these were manganiferous ores and were used in making spiegel. In the early eighties the West Coast hematites played an important part in the international iron industry. A large quantity of the pig-iron was exported, much of it to America, its low phosphorus content rendering it especially valuable for acid Bessemer work. That day has passed away, and the deposits are thinning out. In 1903 there were only 1,490,549 tons of ore mined, or less than half the output in 1882.
The ore now produced may be roughly divided into two classes, .the output of the famous Hodbarrow mine constituting a class by itself.
	Hodbarrow.	Other Mines.
	6.0	18
	4.86	3 73
Price per ton at mines in 1900 ..............................	5.60	4.25
	8.24	7 6
Price per unit at mines in 1900 .............................	9.5	8.68
Many of the mines are exhausted, while others spend large sums of money in exploration. The supply at one mine has been prolonged by building a sea-wall through an arm. of a bay and pumping the pond dry. The success of this undertaking led to a larger project along the same line, when the newly won territory showed signs of exhaustion. The pig-iron production of this district has been maintained by the importation of Spanish ores, the output having remained nearly constant for twenty years. Some of the coke is brought from Durham, which is 111 miles from Barrow, with a freight rate of $1.22 per gross ton, and some from West Yorkshire, a distance of 117 miles from Barrow, the freight being $1.32 per ton.